India takes another step towards sea-based nukes

India’s first nuclear ballistic-missile submarine, INS Arihant, completed its first deterrence patrol last week, marking India’s acquisition of land-, air- and sea-based nuclear weapons.

The submarine can be armed with long- and short-range nuclear ballistic missiles.

Some experts argue, however, that New Delhi is still some time away from establishing a credible deterrence option at sea and a true nuclear “triad”.